WHO IS KRISHNA?
The meaning of the word Krishna in Sanskrit is "all-attractive". He is the Supreme Personality of Godhead, also called as God of Gods. In other words, Krishna is the Godhead because He is all-attractive. From practical experience we can observe that one is attractive due to:
(5) Wisdom and
One who is in possession of all six of these opulences at the same time and who possesses them to an unlimited degree is understood to be the Supreme Personality of Godhead according to Parasara Muni a great Vedic authority.
Humanity in its history has not come across another personality with such activities unparalleled in the history of the world. By all historical accounts, Lord Krishna appeared 5,000 years back and played his part as a human being to perfection. Within the prison of His maternal uncle Kamsa, where His father and mother were confined, Krishna appeared outside His mother’s body as the four-handed Vishnu - Narayana. Then He turned Himself into a baby and told His father to carry Him to the house of Nanda Maharaja and his wife Yashoda in Gokula. The Vedic literatures give further histories of his appearances over millions and billions of years. In the Fourth Chapter of Bhagavad-gita, Krishna states that He can remember instructing the lessons of the Bhagavad-gita some millions of years ago to the sun-god, Vivasvan, because He possesses unlimited knowledge, Krishna has a memory that is boundless.
Bhagavad-gita, spoken by the Lord, as a treatise has been acknowledged the world over for its unfathomable depth and replete with practical instructions. The world’s foremost western philosophers have paid rich tributes for the priceless wisdom that it offers to mankind. A discerning person will notice that all the instructions contained in the Bhagavad-gita is also contained in all other religious scriptures of the world, but there is higher knowledge, which is not found in any other book of knowledge.
What relevance is to a person who knows all this? Generally people think that by advancing the cause of moral principles and religious rites they will be happy. Others may think that happiness can be achieved by economic development, and yet others think that simply by sense gratification they will be happy. The whole world is very eager to satisfy the dormant propensity of love for others, however, if one simply reposes his dormant loving propensity in Krishna, then his life becomes successful. This is not a fiction but is a fact that can be realized by practical application. One can directly perceive the effects that love for Krishna has on his life.
WHY KRISHNA IS GOD?
We have been reading about Lord Shri Krishna, who He is and why He is considered by great authorities as God, the supreme Absolute Truth. There are many explanations given by various spiritual personalities as to what are the possible qualities that God would possess and how Krishna possesses all such qualities in full.
One such explanation is given by Shri Parashara Muni, a great Vedic authority and the father of Shri Vyasadeva, the compiler of all the Vedic literatures. Shri Parashara says that Bhagavan or God should be “all-attractive”. Let us try to understand the factors that would make someone “all-attractive”, or to say the least, attractive.
In this section the following topics will be covered:
Six opulences of Krishna
Supremacy of Krishna
Dominion over Demigods
Accepted by Great Authorities
Definition of God
In fact, Shri Parashara listed a total of six such “attractive” qualities as explained in the following verse.
viryasya yashasah shriyah
shannam bhaga itingana
In the above verse from Vishnu-purana 6.5.47, Bhagavan, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, is thus defined by Shri Parashara Muni as one who is full in six opulences—who has full strength, fame, wealth, knowledge, beauty, and renunciation.
All through His life five thousand years back, Krishna had continually engaged in various pastimes that establish the fact that He possesses all the six opulences in full. Krishna exhibited unlimited strength. His strength was present from the moment of His birth. When He was just three months old, the Putana demon attempted to kill Him, but instead she was killed by Krishna.
Krishna also possesses unlimited fame. Of course, devotees of Krishna know of Him and glorify Him, but apart from them, many millions in the world are aware of the fame of the Bhagavad-gita. In all countries all over the world the Bhagavad-gita is read by philosophers, psychologists, and religionists. The fame of the Bhagavad-gita is Krishna’s fame.
Six Opulences of Krishna
Imagine you are talking to a friend and she mentions that she has been invited for a dinner which would also be attended by Mukesh Ambani, Azim Premji, Bill Gates, Warren Buffet, Carlos Slim, Lakshmi Mittal and the likes. Which quality do you see in common amongst all of them? Richness, isn’t it? And wouldn’t you be pleading with your friend to take you along, so that you may have a glimpse of these cash-rich personalities? Of course, you would be. Under these circumstances, if anyone suggests that the quality of “richness” in someone attracts others, it is a fact.
Bhagavan, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, is the proprietor of all riches. There are many rich men in the world, but no one can claim that he possesses all the wealth. Nor can anyone claim that no one is richer than Him. We understand from the Shrimad-Bhagavatam however, that when Krishna was present on this earth He had 16,108 palaces where His near and dear ones lived, and each palace was made of marble and bedecked with jewels. The rooms were filled with furniture made of ivory and gold, and there was great opulence everywhere. In the history of human society we cannot find anyone who had 16,000 palaces.
We experience in this world that if a man is very rich, he is attractive. The personalities that were mentioned earlier are very attractive because of their riches. They are attractive even though they do not possess all the wealth of the world. How much more attractive, then, is God, who is the possessor of all riches? Great spiritual authorities therefore concluded that Krishna possesses the “attractive” quality of “richness” or being “wealthy” in full.
Beauty, another opulence, is possessed unlimitedly by Krishna. Krishna Himself is very beautiful, as are all His associates. The earth planet is an insignificant planet within the universe, yet this one planet has so many attractive features. We can just imagine, then, how many attractive features must be possessed by God, who is the creator of the entire cosmic manifestation. How beautiful He must be—He who has created all beauty?
A person is attractive not only because of his beauty, but also because of his knowledge. A scientist or philosopher may be attractive because of his knowledge, but what knowledge is more sublime than that given by Krishna in the Bhagavad-gita? There is no comparison in the world to such knowledge. At the same time, Krishna possesses full renunciation (vairagya). So many things are working under Krishna’s direction in this material world, but actually Krishna is not present here. A big factory may continue to work, although the owner may not be present. Similarly, Krishna’s potencies are working under the direction of His assistants, the demigods. Thus Krishna Himself is aloof from the material world. Details regarding this are all described in the revealed scriptures. You would have understood by now how Krishna possesses all the six opulences in full, therefore being “all-attractive”. Thus He is considered by great Vedic authorities as Bhagavan, the Supreme Personality of Godhead.
Accepted by Great Authorities
Chaitanya Mahaprabhu (1486-1534) is Lord Krishna in the aspect of His own devotee. He appeared in Navadvipa, West Bengal, and inaugurated the congregational chanting of the holy names of the Lord to teach pure love of God by means of sankirtana.
Lord Chaitanya uses the word ‘jagadisha’ to glorify Krishna. Jagat means universe and isha means Lord. Whether we are Hindu, Moslem or Christian or whatever, we must acknowledge that there is a supreme controller of this universe. Our Supreme Father is Jagadisha, or Lord of the entire universe. Only Lord Jagadisha is in control; everyone else is controlled. Superiority of Krishna cannot be measured but can be accepted through the proof of the original Vedic scriptures (the Vedas and Upanishads), given directly by the Supreme Lord. There are many things we have to accept solely on grounds of superior authority. No one can deny the existence of his father, based upon the authority of his mother. There is no source of understanding the identity of the father except by the authority of the mother.
The great personalities in the past have accepted Krishna as to be the Supreme Lord and have concluded that there is no one superior to Him. One should accept it as supported by Vyasa, Devala, Asita, Narada and later by the acharyas Ramanujacharya, Madhvacharya, Nimbarka and Vishnu Svami and still later by the greatest acharya, Shri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu.
Let us learn what these great personalities have to say about Lord Krishna.
esha vai bhagavan sakshad adyo narayanah puman
mohayan mayaya lokam gudhash carati vrishnishu
“Shri Krishna is no other than the inconceivable, original Personality of Godhead. He is the first Narayana, the supreme enjoyer.”
Uddhava was A learned disciple of Brihaspati and confidential friend of Lord Krishna in Dvaraka; In Krishna's Mathura and Dvaraka lila, Uddhava is Krishna's best friend. He visited the residents of Vrindavana to console them in their grief due to Krishna's absence. In the Eleventh Canto of Shrimad-Bhagavatam, Krishna imparts the most important transcendental knowledge to Uddhava. He declares:
“Lord Shri Krishna is the Lord of all kinds of threes and is independently supreme by achievement of all kinds of fortune. He is worshiped by the eternal maintainers of the creation, who offer Him the paraphernalia of worship by touching their millions of helmets to His feet.” (Shrimad-Bhagavatam 3.2.21)
tad ahur aksharam brahma sarva-karana-karanam
In many faiths Godhead refers to several divine beings possessing qualities of being God. The term “Supreme Personality of Godhead” refers to Lord Krishna or any of His incarnations who are accepted by great spiritual authorities as being superior to all such Godheads. Shri Krishna, is therefore said to be the original cause of all causes. (Shrimad-Bhagavatam 3.11.42)
The four Kumaras are the four sons of Brahma, named Sanat, Sanandana, Sanaka and Sanatana, who are incarnations of the jnana-shakti (power of knowledge) of Lord Vishnu. They live for the entire duration of universal time, but appear as children of only 5 years. They are the original founders of the Kumara Sampradaya - one of the four Vaishnava sampradayas.
“We know that You are the Supreme Absolute Truth, the Personality of Godhead, who manifests His transcendental form in the uncontaminated mode of pure goodness.” (Shrimad-Bhagavatam 3.15.47)
The Demigods are jivas or ordinary living entities whom the Supreme Personality of Godhead empowers to represent Him in the management of the universe. The first of the demigods is Brahma. Indra is the demigod of rain, Surya of the sunshine, Chandra of the moonshine, and Varuna of water. There are thirty-three million demigods in all. They live in the upper regions of the universe called svarga, or heaven. The Sanskrit equivalent of the word demigod is deva or devata.
“Being present in the three phases of cosmic manifestation - creation, maintenance and annihilation - You are the Supreme Truth. You are the active principle, the real truth, in all the ingredients of creation, and therefore you are known as antaryami, the inner force. You are the beginning of all truth.” (Shrimad-Bhagavatam 10.2.26)
Chief among the sages at Kurukshetra were Krishna-dvaipayana Vyasa, the great sage Narada, Cyavana, Devala, Asita, Vishvamitra, Shatananda, Bharadvaja, Gautama, Lord Parashurama (along with his disciples), Vasishtha, Galava, Bhrigu, Pulastya, Kashyapa, Atri, Markandeya, Brihaspati, Dvita, Trita, Ekata, the four Kumara sons of Brahma (Sanaka, Sanandana, Sanatana and Sanat-kumara), Angira, Agastya, Yajnavalkya and Vamadeva.
They declare, “Dear Lord, we are surprised to see Your behavior, which is just like that of an ordinary human being and which conceals Your real identity as the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Our dear Lord, You are the creator of the social orders and spiritual statuses of human society according to quality and work. You are the Supreme Personality of Godhead, the Supreme Brahman, the Supreme Soul.” Brahman is the impersonal, all-pervasive aspect of the Supreme. In the Chandogya Upanishad 3.14, Brahman is described as tajjalan, as that (tat) from which the world arises (ja), into which it returns (la), and by which is is supported and lives (an). (Chapter 84, Sacrificial Ceremonies Performed by Vasudeva, KRISHNA)
Shrimati Kunti is the mother of the Pandavas and Lord Krishna's aunt in the Mahabharata. She was the daughter of Shurasena and the sister of Vasudeva. She was adopted by King Kuntibhoja and later married King Pandu. Her other name is Pritha.
In her prayers to Lord Krishna, she says
“You are the original personality and are unaffected by the qualities of the material world. You are existing both within and without everything.”
Uttara was the daughter of King Virata and the wife of Abhimanyu. Virata first wanted Arjuna to marry his daughter, but Arjuna declined and said that his son, Abhimanyu, should marry her. Uttara became the mother of King Parikshit.
She prays to Lord Krishna,
“O Lord of lords, Lord of the universe! You are the greatest of mystics. Please protect me, for there is no one else who can save me from the clutches of death in this world of duality.” (Shrimad-Bhagavatam 1.8.9)
Prahlada Maharaja is a great devotee of Lord Krishna who was persecuted by his atheistic father, Hiranyakashipu, but was always protected by the Lord and ultimately saved by the Lord in the form of Narasimhadeva. Prahlada is one of the foremost authorities on bhakti-yoga. Many important verses in Shrimad-Bhagavatam are spoken by him. He is one of the leading authorities on bhakti-yoga.
He states emphatically
yatha hi purusasyeha
yad esa sarva-bhutanam
priya atmeshvarah suhrt
The human form of life affords one a chance to return home, back to Godhead. Therefore every living entity, especially in the human form of life, must engage in devotional service to the lotus feet of Lord Vishnu. This devotional service is natural because Lord Vishnu, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, is the most beloved, the master of the soul, and the well-wisher of all other living beings. (Shrimad-Bhagavatam 7.6.2)
Arjuna, the great archer and intimate friend of Lord Krishna, acknowledges Krishna’s supremacy in the Bhagavad-gita.
param brahma param dhama
pavitram paramam bhavan
purusam shashvatam divyam
adi-devam ajam vibhum
ahus tvam risiayah sarve
devarsir naradas tatha
asito devalo vyasah
svayam caiva bravisi me
Arjuna said: You are the Supreme Brahman, the ultimate, the supreme abode and purifier, the Absolute Truth and the eternal divine person. You are the primal God, transcendental and original, and You are the unborn and all-pervading beauty. All the great sages such as Narada, Asita, Devala and Vyasa proclaim this truth of You, and now You Yourself are declaring it to me. (Bhagavad-gita 10.12-13)
Dhruva Maharaja is a great devotee who at the age of five performed severe austerities and realized the Supreme Personality of Godhead. He received an entire planet, the Pole Star.
“My dear Lord, You are all-powerful. You are the supreme one and Lord Brahma is fully surrendered unto You. I can understand that You are the same Supreme Godhead. I therefore offer my respectful obeisances unto You.” (Shrimad-Bhagavatam 4.9)
King Yudhisthira is The eldest of the Pandavas in the Mahabharata, and the son of Dharmaraja or Yamaraja, the god of death. It was the dispute over his succession to the throne in India that led to the Battle of Kurukshetra; he ruled the earth after the Kurukshetra war.
He discloses why he wants to perform the Rajasuya sacrifice
“I want to perform this Rajasuya sacrifice and invite the demigods to show that they have no power independent of You - that they are all Your servants and You are the Supreme Personality of Godhead.” (Chapter 72, The Liberation of King Jarasandha, Krishna)
Kulashekhara was a great devotee-king and the author of Mukunda-mala stotra, prayers to Lord Krishna. In his prayers he describes,
“I always think of Lord Hari, who is the Supreme Lord, who removes all inauspiciousness and steals the hearts of His devotees and whose joyful lotus face bears a gentle smile. Although He is the son of the cowherd Nanda, He is also the Supreme Absolute Truth worshiped by great sages like Narada.”
(Verse 7, Mukunda-mala stotra)
Dominion over Demigods
Demigods are jivas or ordinary living entities whom the Supreme Personality of Godhead empowers to represent Him in the management of the universe. The first of the demigods is Brahma. Indra is the demigod of rain, Surya of the sunshine, Chandra of the moonshine, and Varuna of water. There are thirty-three million demigods in all. They live in the upper regions of the universe called svarga, or heaven. The Sanskrit equivalent of the word demigod is deva or devata.
According to Vedic conception, there are thirty-three crores of Demigods like Indra, Chandra, Varuna, and many others. John Walters in his book ‘World Religion’ has made a sarcastic comment that Hindu religion has high God to man ratio. One God for every three men. There is a misconception about the Hindu religion among people who profess other religions, such as Christians and Muslims, who say that in the Hindu religion there are many Gods. Actually that is not a fact. God is one, but there are many other powerful living entities who are in charge of different departments of administration. They are called demigods. All the demigods are servants who carry out the orders of the Supreme Lord, the Personality of Godhead. One must offer proper respects to all the demigods. If one can offer respects even to an ant, why not to the demigods? One must always know, however, that no demigod is equal to or above the Supreme Lord.
Ekale isvara krishna, ara saba bhritya: (Chaitanya-caritamrita Adi 5.142) “Only Krishna is the Supreme Personality of Godhead, and all others, including the demigods such as Lord Lord Shiva, Lord Brahma, goddess Durga and Ganesha are His servants.” All demigods accept the supremacy of Lord Krishna. Listed are a few such examples.
Lord Shiva is a partial incarnation of Lord Krishna and he is in charge of the mode of ignorance or tamo-guna amongst the three modes of material nature. He takes charge of destroying the universe at the time of annihilation. He is also considered the greatest Vaishnava, or devotee, of Lord Krishna. He is confused by some with the Supreme Lord.
Lord Shiva while instructing the sons of King Pracinabarhi about the Absolute Truth prays:
My dear Lord, You are the topmost of all bestowers of all benediction, the oldest and supreme enjoyer amongst all enjoyers. You are the master of all the worlds' metaphysical philosophy, for You are the supreme cause of all causes, Lord Krishna. You are the greatest of all religious principles, the supreme mind, and You have a brain which is never checked by any condition. Therefore I repeatedly offer my obeisances unto You. (Shrimad Bhagavatam 4.24.42)
Lord Shiva, out of great mercy, further instructs
yah param ramhasah saksat
prapannah sa priyo hi me
Any person who is surrendered to the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Krishna, the controller of everything—material nature as well as the living entity—is actually very dear to me. (Shrimad-Bhagavatam 4.24.28)
Lord Brahma is the first created living being and secondary creator of the material universe. Directed by Lord Vishnu, he creates all life forms in the universes. He also rules the mode of passion.
Once Lord Brahma wanted to examine the potency of Krishna, he took away all the calves and cowherd boys and kept them in a secluded place. When one full year had passed, Brahma returned and saw that Krishna was still engaged as usual with His friends and the calves and cows. Then Krishna exhibited all the calves and cowherd boys as four-armed forms of Narayana. Brahma could then understand Krishna's potency, and he was astonished by the pastimes of Krishna, his worshipable Lord. Krishna, however, bestowed His causeless mercy upon Brahma and released him from illusion. At that time Lord Brahma began to offer prayers to glorify the Supreme Personality of Godhead.
pasyesa me nayam ananta adye
paratmani tvayy api mayi-mayini
maya vitatyeksitum atma-vaibhava
hy aha kiyan aiccham ivarcir agnau
My Lord, just see my uncivilized impudence! To test Your power I tried to extend my illusory potency to cover You, the unlimited and primeval Supersoul, who bewilder even the masters of illusion. What am I compared to You? I am just like a small spark in the presence of a great fire. (Srimad-Bhagavatam 10.14.11)
Also In the Brahma-samhita prayers Lord Brahma states
isvarah paramah krsnah
anadir adir govindah
Krishna who is known as Govinda is the Supreme Godhead. He has an eternal blissful spiritual body. He is the origin of all. He has no other origin and He is the prime cause of all causes. (Brahma-samhita 5.2)
Lord Indra is the chief demigod of heaven and presiding deity of rain, and the father of Arjuna. He is the son of Aditi.
Once Lord Indra was overcome by anger when the residents of Vraja cancelled his sacrifice. He tried to punish them by sending forth a devastating rainfall to Vrindavana, and Lord Sri Krishna protected Gokula by lifting Govardhana Hill and for seven days using it as an umbrella to ward off the rain. Ashamed of having attacked Vrindavana with a violent storm, Indra secretly came before Lord Krishna, offered obeisances and praised Him.
pita gurus tvam jagatam adhisho
duratyayah kala upatta-dandah
hitaya ceccha-tanubhih samihase
manam vidhunvan jagad-isha-maninam
You are the father and spiritual master of this entire universe, and also its supreme controller. You are insurmountable time, imposing punishment upon the sinful for their own benefit. Indeed, in Your various incarnations, selected by Your own free will, You act decisively to remove the false pride of those who presume themselves masters of this world. (Srimad-Bhagavatam 10.27.6)
namas tubhyam bhagavate
satvatam pataye namah
Obeisances unto You, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, the great Soul, who are all-pervading and who reside in the hearts of all. My obeisances unto You, Krishna, the chief of the Yadu dynasty. (Srimad-Bhagavatam 10.27.10)
Yamaraja is the demigod of death, who passes judgment on non-devotees at the time of death. He is the son of the sun-god and the brother of the sacred river Yamuna.
Yamaraja instructs his messengers, the yamadutas as follows
“My dear servants, you have accepted me as the Supreme, but factually I am not. Above me, and above all the other demigods, including Indra and Chandra, is the one supreme master and controller. The partial manifestations of His personality are Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva, who are in charge of the creation, maintenance and annihilation of this universe. He is like the two threads that form the length and breadth of a woven cloth. The entire world is controlled by Him just as a bull is controlled by a rope in its nose.” (Srimad-Bhagavatam 6.3.12)
aham mahendro nirrtih pracetah
somo 'gnir ishah pavano virincih
aditya-vishve vasavo 'tha sadhya
marud-gana rudra-ganah sasiddhah
anye ca ye vishva-srjo 'maresha
yasyehitam na viduh sprsta-mayah
sattva-pradhana api kim tato 'nye
I, Yamaraja; Indra, the King of heaven; Nirrti; Varuna; Chandra, the moon-god; Agni; Lord Shiva; Pavana; Lord Brahma; Surya, the sun-god; Vishvasu; the eight Vasus; the Sadhyas; the Maruts; the Rudras; the Siddhas; and Maraci and the other great rishis engaged in maintaining the departmental affairs of the universe, as well as the best of the demigods headed by Brhaspati, and the great sages headed by Bhrgu are all certainly freed from the influence of the two base material modes of nature, namely passion and ignorance. Nevertheless, although we are in the mode of goodness, we cannot understand the activities of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. What, then, is to be said of others, who, under illusion, merely speculate to know God? (Srimad-Bhagavatam 6.3.14-15)
Lord Ganesha is the demigod in charge of material opulence and freedom from misfortune. He is the son of Lord Shiva and Parvati, and is the scribe who wrote down the Mahabharata. He has an elephant head.
In the Brahma samhita, it is stated
I adore the primeval Lord Govinda, whose lotus feet are always held by Ganesha upon the pair of tumuli protruding from his elephant head in order to obtain power for his function of destroying all the obstacles on the path of progress of the three worlds. (Brahma-samhita 5.50)
Lord Varuna is the demigod in charge of the oceans.
Once the king of the cowherds, Nanda Maharaja, observed the prescribed fast on the eleventh day of the lunar month and then considered how to break his fast properly on the twelfth day. By circumstance only a few more minutes remained, and so he decided to take his bath at the very end of the night, although astrologically that was an inauspicious time. Thus he entered the water of the Yamuna. A servant of Varuna, the demigod of the ocean, noticed Nanda Maharaja entering the water at a time forbidden by scripture and took him away to the demigod's abode. In the early morning the cowherd men unsuccessfully searched for Nanda, but Lord Krishna immediately understood the situation and went to see Varuna. Varuna worshiped Krishna with great and variegated festivity. Afterwards he begged the Lord to forgive his servant for having foolishly arrested the king of the cowherds.
Shri Varuna said: Now my body has fulfilled its function. Indeed, now the goal of my life is achieved, O Lord. Those who accept Your lotus feet, O Personality of Godhead, can transcend the path of material existence. -(Shrimad Bhagavatam 10.28.5)
namas tubhyam bhagavate
na yatra shruyate maya
My obeisances unto You, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, the Absolute Truth, the Supreme Soul, within whom there is no trace of the illusory energy, which orchestrates the creation of this world. (Shrimad Bhagavatam 10.28.6)
Lakshmidevi is the goddess of fortune and the eternal consort of the Supreme Lord as Lord Narayana, who resides in the unlimited spiritual realm of Vaikuntha.
In the Brahma Samhita, it is mentioned,
I worship Govinda, the primeval Lord, the first progenitor who is tending the cows, yielding all desire, in abodes built with spiritual gems, surrounded by millions of purpose trees, always served with great reverence and affection by hundreds of thousands of lakshmis or gopis. (Brahma-samhita 5.29)
When the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Lord Krishna entered the womb of Devaki to kill Kamsa, all the demigods understood that the Lord was living within Devaki's womb, and therefore in veneration they offered Him the Garbha-stuti prayers.
O supreme controller, Your Lordship previously accepted incarnations as a fish, a horse, a tortoise, Narasimhadeva, a boar, a swan, Lord Ramacandra, Parashurama and, among the demigods, Vamanadeva, to protect the entire world by Your mercy. Now please protect us again by Your mercy by diminishing the disturbances in this world. O Krishna, best of the Yadus, we respectfully offer our obeisances unto You. (Shrimad Bhagavatam 10.2.40)